Anyone who ends up suffering from the onset of dizziness should know that there is hope when it comes to helpful treatments. There are a lot of different ways that you can address the dizziness so that you will not have to suffer with it throughout life.

Treatment for dizziness

When laying down, either on your couch, your bed or the floor, you will be allowing for more blood to be able to flow to your brain. Once you have been laying down for a few minutes, you can sit up slowly and then remain in the sitting position for a few more minutes. After you have been sitting, you can then stand up slowly. However, when you are laying down, you need to remember not to lay flat as it will be better if you use a pillow or two to prop you up.

It is normal to feel some sort of dizziness if you have been sick, especially if you have been experiencing a viral illness, cold or flu. The best way to help dizziness in the case of sickness is getting as much rest as you possibly can while staying hydrated as it will be able to help out with some of your symptoms. Once your body works to heal, you will start to see that there will be a lot less dizzy spells coming your way.

Treatment for dizzinessWhile you are feeling dizzy, you need to stay away from other things that could impact your circulation, such as coffee, alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. Each of these products have been known to cause issues with the circulatory system, which can end up making you feel even more dizzy.

You should always try to remain as hydrated as possible. Dehydration can leave you with a lightheaded feeling. The body is made up of a large percentage of water and you need to make sure that you are always keeping it as hydrated as you can so that you can maintain proper function. Drinking around eight glasses of water or other fluids per day will help and you should notice that you will feel better.

If there is some sort of illness that you have been experiencing that is causing diarrhea or vomiting, you will need to keep track of your fluids to avoid becoming dehydrated. The inability to keep liquids down will call for taking only small sips at different intervals so that you can try to get fluids into your body.

Keeping these tips in mind should help you with avoiding dizzy spells. However, if you ever notice that your symptoms are persistent, you need to consult your doctor to rule out a much larger health problem.

There are hundreds of studies that have shown how the power of hypnosis can be used to create amazing changes in your life from alleviating pain to creating new behaviours.
It has worked for millions of people in the past, continues to work for millions today and it will probably work for you also!

Are you hypnotizable? Is there a possibility that YOU could enter into the deepest states of hypnotic trance? If you are an average person you will most likely think that you can’t be hypnotized. This is normal. The majority of people feel that if it were possible for them to be hypnotized then this, in some way, indicates that they lack any real will-power are naive or of below average intelligence. This could not be further from the truth.

The best hypnotic subjects are actually very intelligent, have a great deal of concentration and have a highly developed ability to focus. You should also be aware that the hypnotic state is different for each person who enters it. It is a state that can vary from individual to individual. Some people can enter extremely deep states of trance where their awareness completely changes and their memory of the event is hidden when they awaken, while others find themselves in a state that is equal to complete relaxation. Most of us fall somewhere in the middle. Wherever you find yourself on the hypnotic trance scale one thing is for certain everyone can be hypnotized to some degree.

In fact you go into trance states constantly throughout the day. Have you ever been “going through the motions”, just performing a task without any conscious effort and been thinking of something completely different? If you travel on the bus or train have you found yourself day-dreaming or remembering past events and been so engrossed in your mental image that you lost track of time or your surroundings? Have you watched a great movie and totally identified with the characters or got so lost in the plot that it was all you were focused on? If you can answer yes any of the aforemention questions, and everyone can, then you have already experienced the state of trance.

Although just entering a hypnotic trance can be very therapeutic, as your body and mind relax and ease tension throughout your whole system, the real power comes from the suggestions and images that are used in this state. Such suggestions can easily, quickly and permanently alter your behaviour and your dominant thinking about any subject you choose. Through suggestion a hypnotist will, mostly, guide you into a mental rehearsal of the new behaviours. New feelings are also anchored to old memories or a visualized future event in order to retrain your mind and body to respond to certain situations differently.

So are YOU hypnotizable?

Well, research shows that the best hypnotic subjects are those people who can easily immerse themselves in any imagined event. This is, in and of itself, a skill that many people in the self improvement field strive very hard to acquire. Hypnotic subjects who can easily enter the deepest, conscious altering, states of trance are those than can easily become absorbed in a fantasy while blocking out their external surroundings.

This basically means the better your imaginative abilities the more profoundly you will experience the hypnotic state.

However, as I have already stated, everyone can be hypnotized and you are no exception! Under the correct conditions you most definitely can and will enter a state of trance. With the right stimuli you can then use this state as catalyst for change in your life. It is possible to remove unwanted behaviours, instil new ones and even program yourself with characteristics and personality traits that you desire.

You can use hypnosis for making changes in just about every area of your life utilizing it to heal your body, mind, and spirit. Hypnotists are now finding that its uses are almost endless! I remember watching a television program featuring the UK hypnotist Paul McKenna, called “I Can Change Your Life”, where he hypnotized a man diagnosed with a form of hysterical blindness. The man’s doctors believed a psychological trauma had caused the man’s blindness and that his eyesight should be working perfectly. After a few sessions with Mr McKenna the man’s sight began to return and he was able to function more productively than before. However, and this is the fascinating bit, before the program had finished shooting the man was sent to an eyesight specialist who discovered that he had been wrongly diagnosed and in fact there had been substantial damage done to his visual equipment! As far as medical science was concerned this man should not be able to see anything, yet through hypnosis his sight was dramatically improved. Why? Because both the hypnotist and the subject believed that it was possible!

Here’s a small example of what hypnosis can be used for. This list could fill a book but I have included these to give you some indication of how you could use it to benefit your life. What do you think hypnosis can do for YOU?

Aid In relaxation
Weight Loss
Smoking Cessation
Improve Sleep
Pain Management
Eliminate Fears & Phobias
Alleviate Depression
Reduce Anxiety & Stress
Awaken Your Creativity
Create More Success
Improve Your Self Confidence
Past Life Regression
Improve Your Memory
Improve Your Sports Performance
Better Study Habits
Release Issues From The Past
Healing Of Skin Conditions
Elimination Of Warts
Lucid Dreaming
Remove Addictions
Change Habits

It would appear that the only limitations of hypnosis are those you place on it! Try it you might just like it.

We are all creative beings. Man’s creative mind made him reach the moon or the peak of the highest mountain in the world, or travel the world and to reach outer space. Our creativity brought out inventions that have improved the quality of human life — all of which are the end result of man’s creativity. Suffice it to say, creativity produces works of art, which is such a large part of our everyday lives. We can see them in almost every corner, every space, and wall around us. It has been used as a visual means of communication and expression dating back to prehistoric times. Art speaks of originality, individuality, a creative process, graphic materials, colors, textures, spontaneity, risk, alternatives, and imagination. But art is not only for the creative minds or the famous painters. Art is also a healthy way to express the way we feel and deal with our emotions. Art has been of central importance to the healing practices of many cultures over much of human history, and as time went on, through observations and research, an art-based therapy method has been developed and called Art Therapy.
According to the American Art Therapy Association, the professional definition of Art Therapy is that: “…it is a human service profession that utilizes art media, images, the creative art process and patient/client responses to the created products as reflections of an individual’s development, abilities, personality, interests, concerns and conflicts.”
Art Therapy practice is based on knowledge of human development and psychological theories which are implemented in the full spectrum of models of assessment and treatment including educational, psychodynamic, cognitive, transpersonal and other therapeutic means of reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, developing social skills, managing behavior, solving problems, reducing anxiety, aiding reality orientation and increasing self-esteem.
The beginnings of modern art therapy can be traced to the early 1900s when psychiatrists first wondered if there was a relationship between artworks and the illnesses of patients. At the same time, art educators began to observe how the free and spontaneous artworks of children were a form of personal storytelling which conveyed emotionally and symbolically meaningful messages. These two areas of interest eventually resulted in the emergence of the distinct discipline of art therapy in the 1930s. During the second half of the twentieth century, art therapists became increasingly organized, setting up graduate programs, professional associations, and journals.
A variety of artistic methods is used in Art Therapy and divided into different professional areas. Some artistic methods that are used are music, dance, psychodrama, movie, speech, recreational, poetry and photo therapy.
Drawing, painting, and sculpting help many people to reconcile inner conflicts, release deeply repressed emotions, and foster self-awareness, as well as personal growth. Some mental health providers use art therapy as both a diagnostic tool and as a way to help treat disorders such as anxiety, abuse-related trauma, and schizophrenia. Art therapy sessions are also given to prison inmates and HIV patients.
Although there is relatively little scientific evidence that proves that it helps people with cancer, many health professionals think it may encourage the cancer patients to express their emotions, which could help them improve their relationship with others. It can also take their minds off from pain and discomfort.
Art is found to be of great help most especially to a depressed individual. Through art, they can discover their anger and express it in a healthy way. In one study, art therapy was used with suicidal teenagers, and results showed that it had positive effects as part of an overall treatment plan.
Another study published in the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management found that art therapy can reduce a broad spectrum of symptoms related to pain and anxiety in cancer patients. In the study done at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, cancer patients reported significant reductions in eight of nine symptoms measured by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) after spending an hour working on art projects of their choice.
Emotional disturbances such as stress overload, depression, and anxiety are the result of losing touch with one’s own thoughts and feelings. One way to get back in touch with these thoughts and feelings is through the use of art. Art therapy provides a sense of accomplishment, enjoyment, and personal expression for those interested in simple relaxation and self-discovery.

There are a lot of programs that can aid you in your endeavors in having a healthy mental life.

If you have a lot of things on your mind and simply want to have the easy way to deal with them helps with programs. Such programs show you the ways on how to be in the healthy line if mental life. They can be an accelerated transformative practice which the professionals can easily impose on your schedule. It can last for a year or longer, depending upon the program administrator.

There are also lessons which you need to follow. Benefits of such programs can maximize your energy, lose weight, maintain good health, enhance your creativity, reduce stress , develop more fulfilling relationships, reach profound meditative states, discover a greater meaning in life, expanding your awareness, strengthen your immune system, take your spirituality to new levels.

You can also find a greater sense of self, master universal dynamics and processes and become the person you want to be they take advantage of the current research and proven practices from nutrition, exercise and psychology to discoveries in the fields of relaxation and spirituality. most other self-help programs that focus on one system or philosophy, some are holistic – or big-picture – approach that addresses all aspects of a person’s well-being.

Most of them goes well beyond offering you the theories behind our programs to give you practical tools and activities to put the power of our programs to work in your life and these programs or lessons are easy to follow, quick to implement and fun to participate in.

Audio self help tapes

On a typical self-help tape, you will hear a pleasant and easy to listen to English voice which will guide you into a deeply relaxed state of mind and body. To enhance the therapeutic effect each tape includes layered echoed background affirmations, a deeply relaxing effect, which pan from left to right in your headphones & 3D Sound effects.

So at times you’ll hear one voice in one ear speaking to the left hemisphere of your brain, while at the same time hearing other echoed voices addressing other parts of your brain.

This powerful method of delivering multiple suggestions simultaneously to the unconscious mind can facilitate positive changes very quickly. In addition to this the absorbing 60 bpm sound effects and powerful subliminal suggestions enhance the overall effectiveness.

How to take advantage of such programs

Speaking from a job organization behavioral point of view let us take a look at what motivation is all about and how to improve it. The human brain as I mentioned earlier is a virtual warehouse of energy.

There is nothing that we cannot do once we put our minds to it. Yeah, sure, all that has been proved time and again, but along with it comes a string attached. The same brain is easily distracted. In fact our imagination is probably the one thing that can travel faster than light. And so it is not an easy task to keep the brain occupied in the same task for an extended period of time. If the job is monotonous the task becomes more difficult and if the job is demanding and involves a lot of pressure to keep time, then you are done for.

Motivation can be thought of as the process of channeling the surplus energy of the brain towards a definite goal or purpose. If you have a good boss or supervisor, then the task of keeping you motivated rests with them. But even then, you have the responsibility to keep yours self motivated and believe me, self motivation is the best motivation because it comes from within.

You haven’t enjoyed your summer to the fullest if you haven’t spent at least a weekend out in the great outdoors. Whether you lease a cabin in the woods, or whether you decide to pitch a tent, you can enjoy all of nature’s bounty. You can lie under the stars or you can be in a RV in the woods or by a lake to feel the therapeutic and soothing effects of nature.

Here are some of the best camping sites in the USA.

A.B.C or America’s Best Campground
This lies in Branson, Missouri. There are one hundred and sixty two campsites for tents and RV. Facilities like electricity, telephone hook up and even satellite TV are available. Each site has its own concrete patio, grill and table. There are also cabins available, which have a.c, and heating, a kitchenette and a bathroom and a TV along with covered porches, tables for picnics and grill and an outdoor hydrant.

Montana de Oro or Mountain of Gold
This State Park in Southern California is a wonderful beach side camping holiday site. There are four sites available for hiking campers who can bring in supplies on their own. The steep drop along the bank offers a spectacular view of the ocean and the sea lion colonies. The proximity to the ocean, the hiking trails and the profusion of golden flowers make this a very popular camping site.

Angel Island State Park
Nine campsites complete with running water, a pit toilet, a barbeque grill and a picnic table are available on this fantastic island paradise, which lies in the San Francisco Bay. There are many hiking trails and bicycles are available too for rent. You can explore the island and discover all that it has to offer by way of shopping and other activities, or relax at the Cove Café too.

Petit Jean State Park
Situated near Little Rock in Arkansas, this is famous for being America’s first State Park. With one hundred and twenty seven campsites and thirty-three cabins and camping equipment, which are available for renting, this is a very popular camping tour destination. There are numerous hiking trails, picnic spots, playgrounds and facilities for swimming on this wonderful Camping Park.

For Welikit Family Campground
With close proximity to the three lakes, this Camping site of South Dakota offers great attractions and facilities. Mount Rushmore, Crazy Horse Mountain, Custer State Park’s Buffalo caves and the many golf courses are just half an hour form this Campground. Facilities are available for horse camping on the several trails and for RV hook up. Cabins are available and so are sites for tents. Except inside the Cabins, pets are allowed everywhere. Propane is available for sale and trailers are also available for renting.

Irrespective of the economic strata, Camping is number one holiday activity of the people of USA, according to the Travel Industry Association. You can enjoy it too and come back with wonderful memories which you will cherish your entire life. All you need to do is to decide on your destination, and set out with your maps, compass and backpacks.


Greece is a country in the Southeastern point of
Europe, occupying an area of 131, 957 square
kilometers and a population amounting to about
11,000,000. Athens is the capital of Greece.

Mutuality Among Diversity

Crossroads of colors, cultures, and civilization are
the main characteristics of Greece. A step into the
country takes you back to the warmth and the grandeur
of ancient and historic Greece that seems to be found
only in books. Discover the evolutionary process of
influence, experience, and thought in Greece.

Greece has a unique and affluent historical past that
influenced its locals to gaze optimistically and
confidently into the future. The country, despite
being statistically small, is characterized by its
huge diversity.

A WTO 15th Placer

Welcoming more than 14 million tourists annually,
Greece ranked 15th on the World Tourism Organization
list of countries with inbound tourism making it one
of the most popular tourist destinations worldwide.


Beautiful landscapes are captured in postcards but its
vibrant and animated way of life, needs to be lived in
order to be appreciated.

Moments in Greece are a constant journey through time.
Explore the breathtaking scenery, roam the beaches and
Rocky Mountains, discover clusters of sparsely
inhabited islands, and walk through ancient sites and
olive groves. You will find that you’re traveling from
the present to the past and back again.

Very attractive sceneries are available for travelers
to explore. Protected and rare bird, animal and fauna
species, as well as sensitive wetlands, ecosystems,
and forests found safe dwellings in Greece. One will
find extremely unique, natural, and rich landscapes
decorating Epirus to Creta Island.

The long-standing history of Greece left a number of
archeological sites and monuments, all preserved with
their distinctive charm and prestige.

However, in the recent years, special forms of tourism
invite guests from other countries. Programs such as
religious tourism, therapeutic-spa tourism,
agrotourism, ecological tourism, and many more began
to develop in Greece.
This resulted to guests visiting
Greece not only because of its classical feel but also
because they want to break the monotony of usual
holiday celebration. Join activities such as
sightseeing, relaxing, and enjoying the unique
experience offered by the country’s nature.

Being a country with vast wealth of folklore and
cultural tradition, visitors choose to grab
opportunities that enrich their travel to Greece by
attending carious sports or cultural events held in
every region of the country.

Shop Till You Drop

You will find shopping worthwhile in Greece. Visitors
will be able to find something for every budget and
purchase them at very reasonable prices. Shops cater
to every tourist’s wishes and tastes.

Eat Something Greek

Greek cuisine is outstanding. Their dishes are famous
all over the world and what better way to experience
these delectable creations than in Greece. Unwind and
dine in posh restaurants, mass-friendly taverns,
livable bars and clubs.

Around Town

Transportation, on the other hand, became modernized
and benefited both locals and tourists alike. Fast and
safe traveling is guaranteed. Motorways, railroads,
bridges, and ports were constructed. New ferries,
trains, cars, and sea transportation opened for
operation. This became an important milestone in the
improvement and development of travel in the country.

Royal Decision

Mythical and inspiring – that is Greece. Give yourself
a break and spend time in Greece. You will find that
taking a Greek Island Vacation will be yet the best
decision you’ve ever made.

Be the goddess (or god) that you are in Greece!

Sports medicine was initially coordinated in the ancient areas of Greece and Rome where many of the young athletes were not being properly trained. Striving to improve this training and provide better overall supervision of the young athlete’s physical education was designed. This coordination of physical education was used to help increase the strength and abilities of the athletes in a carefully controlled way, which would allow their progress to be carefully monitored.

In events as far back as the 5th century, it is possible to notice distinct training to help discourage injuries starting with such people as Herodicus, whom is credited with using therapeutic exercise to help heal injuries, and also Galen who was a doctor that was assigned to monitor the gladiators of the 2nd Century. Previous attempts at using a doctor for preventative training was largely ignored with physicians and doctors only being used in the event that an injury did occur.

However, despite these efforts it was not until many years later that Sports Medicine itself was actually conceived. During the 1928 Olympics, which were held in St. Moritz a small committee was formed with the task of organizing the International Congress of Sports Medicine. Upon this concept, the idea of using actual doctors to help prevent the occurrence of injuries was brought to light. Starting in 1968 during the Summer Olympics, which were held in Mexico City, Dr. J.C. Kennedy organized a team of doctors that was to travel with the Canadian athletes to ensure they were well cared for.

In addition, Dr. Kennedy became the founder of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine. Additionally, Dr. Kennedy earned the honor of being appointed to be the Chief Medical Officer for the first medical team to be officially associated with the Olympics in the 1972 Summer Olympics that were held in Munich, Germany. This was a task that proved even the Olympics were starting to place value in the idea of sports medicine.

As time has progressed the involvement of physicians and doctors in more than just treatment of injuries has increased. Many athletes see doctors regularly for check ups and testing to ensure that they are in the best physical shape possible, while still achieving the athletic goals that they desire. While the use of a sports medicine team by many is still considered a luxury, for others it is an essential aspect of being a responsible athlete.

As the amount of care provided to athletes before injuries occur has increased, the number of injuries that are being treated has decreased which leads to a better quality of life for many athletes. Deciding to be proactive in the treatment options of athletes is part of what sets sports medicine apart from many other fields. Rather than waiting until an injury occurs, sports medicine aims to continuously minimize the risk to athletes to achieve the best results.

Sports medicine has come a very long way in recent years, and continued research and growth in the field is abundantly clear. Most athletic teams travel with a team of doctors, and most athletes particularly professionals are all eagerly willing to work with a well qualified sports medicine team to improve their health. From reduced injuries to improving performance results, the field of sports medicine has made incredible progress since the beginnings in Ancient Rome and Greece.

(word count 558)

If there was one thing I had noticed from my travels around Wales it was the extensive use of the Welsh language. The people of Wales are extremely proud of their country and rightly so. The language helps Wales keep its identity. Many are resentful of English domination and prefer the idea of more independence.

But one thing was for sure. No one could deny the natural beauty of their country and the warmth of its people. The A4086 to Betws-y-Coed may have been slow progress through the narrow twists and turns of the valley roads, but the sheer beauty of the region made the time irrelevant.

Another great aspect of the valley roads was the low volume of traffic. This was the Easter Bank Holiday weekend and any journey made in England would require a very early start. But with a population of little more than a million people, there’s enough room for everyone.

Betws-y-Coed is a quaint little village just within the boundaries of Snowdonia National Park amongst the deep Welsh valleys. Commercial activity has led to the village outgrowing itself and it now bursts at the seams. Retail outlets fight for every square inch of space.

I decided to take advantage of this retail war and buy some new walking boots. After parking on this ridiculously steep hill I made my way to the action. My vulnerability to ingrowing toenails means having to buy at least a size bigger than I actually am to ensure enough space for comfort.

The big sale signs outside one store looked promising so I ventured in and soon found myself amongst the maps. There’s something therapeutic about looking at maps. Maybe it’s the natural human tendency to travel and explore.

The therapy however, only lasts for as long as you are left alone and out of the corner of my eye I spotted a shop assistant approaching in stealth-like fashion. I thought of making a dash to the other side of the bookshelf, but I had already fallen victim and had to admit defeat.

“The Ordinance Survey provides great detail in a 1:50000 scale as well as being weatherproof in its laminated cover,” the man droned monotonously.

“Great,” I replied, struggling to find any enthusiasm. “Where are the boots?”

The stress levels of people now are much higher compared before. This is one of the reasons why more and more of them are finding ways to manage stress so as not to affect their overall health. One of the ways that people—especially those that have super stressful jobs—prefer is self hypnosis. This is because the practice can help them relieve and manage stress the most natural means possible.

Why use self hypnosis?

When the word “hypnosis” is mentioned, many people are hesitant to try it because of the common misconception that it can manipulate one to do things beyond his or her wishes. Not many of them realize that this is not always the case. If truth to be told, hypnosis—through self hypnosis—can be one of the best therapeutic tools that a person can use. This is because people can use this in overcoming their fears. It will also be able to help them in withstanding pain and manage varying levels of stress that they experience in their lives.

Nowadays, the horror of hypnosis is being changed because of the rise in awareness in its seemingly endless possibilities by using it in a therapeutic way. In fact, more and more establishments now are quite open to give hypnosis services to people. This is to prove that hypnosis can be a good thing if it is practiced or conducted by a licensed or a professional hypnotist. It is good to take note the are various types of hypnotists. In the industry of hypnosis, types of hypnotists include showroom hypnotists that usually work in bars and clubs and whose subjects are those people whose idea of good time by joining hundreds of people in places where alcohol is used as a social lubricant and clinical hypnotists, on the other hand, are those who deal with people that have problems and those who consider hypnotherapy as a means of relieving pain and overcoming addiction, fear and confusion.

But, if you still don’t have enough trust to other people in hypnotizing you because they might cause you to do something without your consent or proper awareness, it is best to conduct self hypnosis. This is because you are quite sure that nobody would try to hurt you or make fun of you since you will be conducting it yourself. Aside from ensuring that you are safe, you will also be able to save lots of time and some money since you won’t have to travel all the way to a certain clinic and pay for the services of the hypnotist. All you have to do is do some research and you will learn how to use your own voice during the process.

Self hypnosis as a stress buster

Many people are finding it best to use self hypnosis as a stress buster because it does not really require so much time, money or effort. In fact, many people would agree that self hypnosis can be one of the easiest means of relieving stress by means of being in a relaxed state where you can directly address the tensions that you feel and somehow trigger your body’s response to relaxation. This is helpful to be able to avoid chronic stress that may lead to many health problems. It can also help you achieve a healthier life because it can lead you to develop good habits that can veer you away from activities that have harmful effects not only to your physical body but to your emotional state as well.

With many people now turning to natural remedies to help
aid their illnesses, there is much need for online
homeopathic consulting.
Especially for those who live in
small towns that don’t readily have people available who
specialize in such fields.

The homeopathic community, though now growing, is still
small compared to the general medical community.

For a minimal fee, there are many people out there who
offer online homeopathic consulting. Homeopathy is the
therapeutic art of cure based on natures laws brought to
heal the sick by holistic touch.

It is the most gentle and harmless way to cure disease. A
homeopathic physicians job is to perceive what is curable
in disease by the use of nature’s own elements.

Sometimes, online homeopathic consulting is also known as
telehomeopathy. It is like having an electronic house call
and works well with patients who are too ill to leave their

Some doctors even use web cameras so they have a -face to
face- with their patients. This also reduces the fee the
patient pays since consultations can be done without the
hassle of travel.

Since there is usually a shortage of local homeopathic
practitioners, you can find one who lives cities or states
away and meet with them just as you would meet in their

Perhaps some day, more licensed physicians will practice
this way which will lead to more people willing to be
treated for their illness instead of needlessly suffering.
We can only hope they will see the advantages it offers
their patients.